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Binocular Dysfunction

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Convergence Insufficiency and Convergence Excess

Our goal at Hartsdale Family Eyecare is a lifetime of clear vision. Dr. Schwartz has been providing Vision Therapy for her patients since 1983. We help children and adults with binocular vision problems and vision problems that can affect learning and sports.

At our eye care clinic near White Plains, NY we identify the cause of vision issues caused by Binocular disorders that include; double vision, shaky vision, crossed eyes (strabismus), lazy eye (amblyopia). We work with people of all ages who have eye movement and binocular disorders. Our goal is identify the cause of your binocular dysfunction, and help you receive the most effective treatment.

Learn more about convergence insufficiency & excess here.

Extensive consultations for Binocular Dysfunction & Eye Movement Disorders

These conditions can be present at birth, acquired at an early age, or develop in later childhood and adulthood. We use sophisticated testing to determine the cause of your symptoms. We work diligently to help you and your child understand your condition, and choose the most appropriate treatment.

First you should know a bit



Convergence insufficiency is a condition that in many cases is undetected due to the fact that it is generally not detected with a regular eye exam. It is a condition where the eyes have issues teaming, tending to converge outwards instead. This leads to a variety of symptoms such as eye strain, headaches, inability to focus on close vision tasks, issues with tracking or seeing letters move, and double vision. In many cases, the person will compensate by covering or closing one eye when doing near tasks. The effects of convergence insufficiency are severe with the most common issues being hand-eye co-ordination, posture, difficulty focusing on close work. Clinical trials have shown overwhelming success with using vision therapy to correct for convergence insufficiency.


Convergence excess is the condition where the eyes tend to turn towards each other. The most common name for this condition is Strabismus. Esotropia is a form of Strabismus where one eye turns inward. Esphoria is the term used for milder cases of convergence excess. The most common symptoms are headaches, eye fatigue, and difficulty focusing for a longer period of time. For cases of Esphoria and Strabismus a vision therapy program is considered the best course of treatment. For more severe forms of Convergence Excess such as Esotropia and Amblyopia patching or special lenses may be recommended.


Many types of Convergence related issues are better treated at an earlier age. The ideal age for treating Amblyopia and Esotropia is considered 5-6 years of age. In addition to the benefits of efficacy of treatment, there are many side benefits of treating convergence issues earlier.

  • The effects of untreated convergence insufficiency and excess is that your child will have a harder time focusing, reading, which in many cases will lead to a general frustration with learning and reading.
  • In situations where the eye turns inwards or outwards in a noticeable manner, there are severe social pressure on the child.

Choose Dr. Arlene Schwartz near White Plains, NY for treatment of your eye movement disorders because we offer:

Top-ranked care: Hartsdale Family Eyecare is consistently chosen among residents of Westchester’s Hartsdale & Scarsdale residents for outstanding vision therapy treatments.
Experienced pediatric specialist: Dr. Arlene Schwartz helps children with learning-related vision problems. This includes advanced training in eye conditions that affect children.
Team approach: We work closely with other specialists throughout Westchester to ensure you receive the best possible care for your condition.
Latest imaging devices: We use the most sophisticated imaging to perform important tests that help us diagnose the cause of your symptoms. Our high-tech imaging devices allow us to see the outer edges of the eye, a significant advance that better guides the treatment decisions recommended to you by your medical team.
The national leader in optometry: Dr. Schwartz continues to study and is dedicated to finding the latest techniques and technology to give you state-of-the-art eye care.
Comprehensive support: At Hartsdale Family Eyecare our team is available to help you cope and understand the steps and treatments necessary for improved vision.


Extensive evaluation: We conduct an extensive and thorough evaluation, using the latest technology to determine the best treatment option. The evaluation is tailored to your specific symptoms. Your evaluation will include a complete medical history, an examination of your eyes, including close inspection of your retina and optic nerve, and several imaging scans. The following tests may be conducted.

Visual acuity: Measures the extent to which vision is affected. Orthoptic measures or eye movement analysis. An eye movement specialist measures ocular alignment and the coordination between the eyes in all positions of gaze.

What is Amblyopia and Strabismus?

Amblyopia (Lazy Eye)

Amblyopia, also known as “lazy eye”, is the lack of normal visual development in an eye, despite the eye being healthy. If left untreated, it can cause legal blindness in the affected eye.

What causes amblyopia?

The most common cause of amblyopia is strabismus (intermittent or constant misalignment of the eyes). Another common cause is a significant difference in the refractive errors (nearsightedness, farsightedness and/or astigmatism) in the two eyes.


Strabismus is the intermittent or constant misalignment of the eyes and is commonly called cross eyed. The good news is that Strabismus and Amblyopia can be treated, however it’s important to correct amblyopia as early as possible, before the brain ignores vision in the affected eye.

Amblyopia and Strabismus Treatment

Amblyopia and strabismus (lazy eye or cross eye) are treated at a young age using one of the following methods depending on the age, maturity and severity of the condition. In many cases our Optometrist, Dr. Schwartz, will recommend a combination of the following.

  • Vision Therapy: Customized training to teach your eyes to work together
  • Prism Glasses: Special lenses that correct for the combined vision created by both eyes
  • Patching: Patching of the stronger eye to build up the weaker ignored eye
  • 3D games and virtual patching, some products allow for virtual patching where the 3D goggles favor one eye over the other thereby strengthening the weaker eye.

What Is Vision Therapy?

You may have heard that Vision Therapy is effective at treating Convergence Insufficiency, but you are probably wondering, what is Vision Therapy?

  • Vision Therapy is a highly specialized treatment performed by eye doctors and trained technicians.
  • Vision Therapy usually lasts 6 months to a year, but may last longer.
  • Vision Therapy is designed to train the brain and the eyes to work together using customized exercises and games.
  • Vision Therapy is has years of scientific evidence backing its efficacy, and our experience shows dramatic improvements in classroom learning, behavior, self esteem, reading, sports, and much more.

Now it’s your turn to see what


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Call Us At 914-902-5079